To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.


(1) Thickness of paper or other substrate expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils or points), pages per inch (ppi), thousandths of a millimeter (microns) or pages per centimeter (ppc). (2) Device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.

Capacity of the printing sheet

The number of printed characters that fit in the printed sheet, depending on the format of a set of bands, size, typeface and line spacing. Printed sheet capacity ratio is determined by dividing the volume of the book in the publisher's lists on its volume in conventional printing plates.

Capacity font

The number of characters available in a line of a certain format. For a number of publications, such as portable (handheld), and official departmental inquiry, the use of high-capacity (fuel-efficient, while ensuring the readability of normal) font allows you to place a large number of characters per line is of paramount importance. When dialing newspapers and magazines capacity font also plays a big role, so they use the fonts in the main pin 8 and 9.

Carbonless Paper

Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing. 


Selling unit of paper that may weigh anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds (9,090 to 45, 454 kilos), depending on which mill or merchant uses the term. Abbreviated CL. 


Selling unit of paper weighing approximately 150 pounds (60 kilos). A carton can contain anywhere from 500 to 5,000 sheets, depending on the size of sheets and their basis weight. 

Case Bind

To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth bind, edition bind, hard bind and hard cover. 

Cast-coated Paper

High gloss, coated paper made by pressing the paper against a polished, hot, metal drum while the coating is still wet. 

Catalog Paper

Coated paper rated #4 or #5 with basis weight from 35# to 50# (50 to 75 gsm) commonly used for catalogs and magazines. 

Chain Dot

(1) Alternate term for elliptical dot, so called because midtone dots touch at two points, so look like links in a chain. (2) Generic term for any midtone dots whose corners touch. 

Chain Lines

(1) Widely spaced lines in laid paper. (2) Blemishes on printed images caused by tracking. 


Deterioration of a printed image caused by ink that absorbs into paper too fast or has long exposure to sun, and wind making printed images look dusty. Also called crocking. 

Check Copy

(1) Production copy of a publication verified by the customer as printed, finished and bound correctly. (2) One set of gathered book signatures approved by the customer as ready for binding. 


Technique of slightly reducing the size of an image to create a hairline trap or to outline. Also called shrink and skinny. 


Strength of a color as compared to how close it seems to neutral gray. Also called depth, intensity, purity and saturation. 

Close Up

A mark used to indicate closing space between characters or words. Usually used in proofing stages. 


Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors. 

Coated Paper

Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte. 


To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested. 

Collating Marks

Mostly in the book arena, specific marks on the back of signatures indicating exact position in the collating stage. 

Color Balance

Refers to amounts of process colors that simulate the colors of the original scene or photograph. 

Color Blanks

Press sheets printed with photos or illustrations, but without type. Also called shells. 

Color Break

In multicolor printing, the point, line or space at which one ink color stops and another begins. Also called break for color. 

Color Cast

Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image. 

Color Control Bar

Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain. Also called color bar, color guide and standard offset color bar. 

Color Correct

To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors. 

Color Curves

Instructions in computer software that allow users to change or correct colors. Also called HLS and HVS tables. 

Color Electronic

Prepress System  Computer, scanner, printer and other hardware and software designed for image assembly, color correction, retouching and output onto proofing materials, film or printing plates. Abbreviated CEPS. 

Color Gamut

The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing. 

Color Key

 Brand name for an overlay color proof. Sometimes used as a generic term for any overlay color proof. 

Color Model

Way of categorizing and describing the infinite array of colors found in nature. 

Color Separation

(1) Technique of using a camera, scanner or computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone negatives. (2) The product resulting from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing. Also called separation. 

Color Sequence

Order in which inks are printed. Also called laydown sequence and rotation. 

Color Shift

Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing. 

Color Transparency

Film (transparent) used as art to perform color separations. 

Comb Bind

To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name). 

Composite Proof

Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof, imposition proof and stripping proof. 


(1) In typography, the assembly of typographic elements, such as words and paragraphs, into pages ready for printing. (2) In graphic design, the arrangement of type, graphics and other elements on the page. 


Thick paper that protects a publication and advertises its title. Parts of covers are often described as follows: Cover 1=outside front; Cover 2=inside front; Cover 3=inside back, Cover 4=outside back. 


Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy. 

Cover Paper

Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books. 

Crop Marks

Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks. 


Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump. 

CTF-system or CTF

Computer-to-Film - a computer in the resulting image. Same as Imagesetter

CTP-system or CTP

"Computer-to-Plate" - a computer on the plate. The device enables to produce offset plates directly exposing it to the digital device. You can prevent the process of developing and subsequent contact photoforms exposing them on the copy holder. Currently, the global printing market exists steady trend of repression imagesetters with CTP devices.


Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper. 

Cut Sizes

Paper sizes used with office machines and small presses. 

Cutting Machine

A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing. 

Cutting Die

Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects. 


One of the four process colors. Also known as process blue.